Explain its normal role and why scientists would regard it as the ‘guardian of the genome.’

Explain its normal role and why scientists would regard it as the "guardian of the genome."

Answers

The gene p53, also called the guardian of the genome is located on the 17th chromosome in human genomes.
It was given this alternative name because it has a role in response to damage of DNA molecule and in preventing cancer.
The protein product of this gene stops the replication of damaged DNA, activates proteins that repair the DNA damage and if the reparation proteins fail to fix the damage it activates the process of apoptosis or so-called cell death in order to prevent the damaged cell to proliferate and potentially develop into a tumor.

P53 protein is a tumor supressor protein.p53 is so named because it has a molecular weight of 53 kd.p53 is encoded by TP53 gene.p53 is called the guardian of the genome because it helps to maintain balance between live cells and dead cells.

Explanation:

p53 is an important regulatory protein of apoptosis or programmed cell death.p53 helps in the destruction of damaged cells or cell with damaged DNA thus ensuring that every cell in our body has normal DNA.

   Mutation of p53 result in the generation of cancer because p53 is a potent regulator of cell cycle.

  p53 destroy the damaged cells by activating p21 which in turn blocks G1 cyclin CDK  thus blocking the cell to enter the S phase or synthesis phase.

 Mutation in p53 result in the progression of abnormal cell through the cell cycle which ultimately result in formation of abnormal protein thus giving rise to the onset of cancer.

p53  or  Tumor protein (TP53 ) is the Guardian of  genome. located on locus 17p13.1  on chromosomes

It is  the gene that regulates  the protein that codes for process of cell cycle of ( mitosis and meiosis)' and cell death therefore suppresses the  uncontrollable   cells  growth which can  lead to tumor.

TP53 has relatively high molecular mass   of 53 kilodalton fractions in the cell ; this characteristics together with the ability to  conserve cell cycle stability  in  multicellular  organism  by stopping   mutation of  genetic materials by suppressing tumor  made it to be called the Guardian of genome.

ROLES

→ p53 functions by arresting the growth of cells to stop uncontrolled growth.

←it also  repair damage DNA to guide against mutation, by activation of protein involved in DNA  repair.

and  

←Promotes death of the cells (Apoptosis,) so that damaged or altered DNA would  not be transcript and translated  in the cell.

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