For each phase, describe at least one way mistakes during the cell cycle could result in problems

For each phase, describe at least one way mistakes during the cell cycle could result in problems

Answers

Ans.

Cell cycle is series of events that leads to duplication of DNA, followed by the division of a parent cell into daughter cells. In humancells, cell cycle involves three stages, interphase and mitotic phase (in somatic cells) or meiosis (in germ cells), and cytokinesis.  Interphase includes G0 (gap 0) phase, G1 phase, S (synthesis) phase, and G2 phase. M-phase (mitotic or meiotic phase) includes prophase, anaphase, anaphase and telophase, after that cytokinesis takes place. Errors during different stages lead to various problems, that include:

Errors during interphase:

During G1 phase, cell prepares for division as it makes all the proteins necessary for DNA replication on S-phase. If a cell has not sufficient proteins or other raw materials for DNA replication, DNA replication will get affected.

During S-phase, DNA replication occurs. Errors in DNA replication will lead to loss of DNA integrity or mutations.

During G2 phase, cell prepares for mitotic division. Any error that occurs during S-phase gets repaired during this phase. If those errors do not get reaired in G2 phase, they will pass to daughter cells through M-phase.

Errors during M-phase: Chromosomal abnormalities can occur during metaphase of meiosis. It would lead to enuploidy or polyploidy, due to unequal division of chromosomes.

For each phase, one way mistakes during the cell cycle could result in problems are:

Interphase has two phase:  G1 phase: If a cell doesn’t have a sufficient amount of proteins or other raw materials for the replication of DNA. S phase or synthesis of DNA: Mistake in this phase will leads to the loss of DNA mutations or integrity. G2 phase: In this phase error is resolved even in case of unresolved error the cell undergoes division to pass on the error to the daughter cell. The second stage of a cell cycle is the mitosis or M phase. Mistake in this phase leads to the development of polyploidy or euploidy.

Further Explanation:

The cell cycle refers to an ordered flow of events which includes cell growth as well as cellular division. This cycle produces 2 new daughter cells. The cycle starts with interphase in this the cell mature and replicates its own DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. The interphase begins with:

G1 phase: This is the primary growth phase provide nutrient to the cell. If a cell doesn’t have a sufficient amount of proteins or other raw materials for the replication of DNA. S phase or synthesis of DNA: During this phase, the replication of DNA takes place. The centrosome is divide and forms mitotic spindle during the mitosis phase. Mistake in this phase will leads to the loss of DNA mutations or integrity. G2 or second gap: during this phase, the cell mainly replenishes its energy stores as well as synthesizes the proteins which are required for the chromosome manipulation. In this phase error is resolved even in case of unresolved error the cell undergoes division to pass on the error to the daughter cell.

The second stage of a cell cycle is the mitosis or M phase. Chromosomal abnormalities can occur during metaphase of meiosis. It would lead to enuploidy or polyploidy, due to unequal division of chromosomes. Mitotic phase refers to a multiphase process in this the chromosomes are aligned, segregated, and moved into the two new daughter cells which are identical to each other.

This phase starts with:

Prophase: During this phase, the condensation of the chromosomes takes place and these chromosomes become visible. Spindle fibers are formed in this stage. Also, the nuclear envelope breakdown takes place. In this phase, some time a major problem occurs which is condensation of the chromosomes doesn’t occur properly.

Metaphase: In this stage, the formation of spindle fibers is completed and centrosomes are found at the opposite terminals of the cell. The chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. Each of the sister chromatids is linked to the spindle fiber starting from the opposite poles. In this phase, one problem occurs which is chromosomes don't line up perfectly.

Anaphase: During this phase, the cohesion proteins link with the sister chromatids and split them down. The sister chromatids are pulled towards the opposite end of the cell and the non-kinetochore spindle fibers get increase in length and elongate a cell. In this phase, one problem occurs which is chromosome doesn't split exactly into two.

Telophase: During this last phase, the chromosomes arrive at the opposite terminals and start to decondense. The mitotic spindle fiber and nuclear envelope are break down. In this phase, one problem occurs which is chromosomes remain in tangled and stay together.

The last phase of the cell cycle is called cytokinesis wherein the cleavage furrow occurs are segregates the daughter cells. In plant cells, the cell plate is responsible for the segregation of the daughter cells. In this phase, one problem occurs that is cell doesn't separate into two new daughter cells and stay intact.

Learn more:

Learn more about mitosis Learn more about the menstrual cycle   Learn more about meiosis

Answer Details:

Grade: High School

Subject: Biology

Chapter: Cell Cycle

Keywords:

Mitosis, meiosis, cell division, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, segregation, chromosome.  

Ans.

Cell cycle includes a series of events, which leads to DNA duplication, followed by formation of new cells from a parent cell. In humans and other higher organisms, cell cycle consists of four phases, G1 (gap 1), S phase (synthesis phase), G2 phase and M phase (either mitotic or meiotic phase), in which mistakes can occur.

During G1 phase, cell prepares itself to divide and makes proteins, required for DNA synthesis during S phase. Errors occur when cell cannot make sufficient proteins and other necessary raw materials.

During S phase, DNA replication takes place to gets divided into daughter cells. Errors during S phase includes mutations and loss of DNA integrity.

During G2 phase, cell gets prepared for mitotic or meiotic division. Errors that occurred during S phase are repaired during G2 phase. Mistakes in repairing those errors result in problems as they will pass to the new daughter cells through M phase.  

During M phase, separation of duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells occurs. Mistakes that can lead to errors during this phase include chromosomal abnormalities, such as polyploidy or enuploidy.

For each phase, one way mistakes during the cell cycle could result in problems are:

Interphase has two phase:  G1 phase: If a cell doesn’t have a sufficient amount of proteins or other raw materials for the replication of DNA. S phase or synthesis of DNA: Mistake in this phase will leads to the loss of DNA mutations or integrity. G2 phase: In this phase error is resolved even in case of unresolved error the cell undergoes division to pass on the error to the daughter cell. The second stage of a cell cycle is the mitosis or M phase. Mistake in this phase leads to the development of polyploidy or euploidy.

Further Explanation:

The cell cycle refers to an ordered flow of events which includes cell growth as well as cellular division. This cycle produces 2 new daughter cells. The cycle starts with interphase in this the cell mature and replicates its own DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. The interphase begins with:

G1 phase: This is the primary growth phase provide nutrient to the cell. If a cell doesn’t have a sufficient amount of proteins or other raw materials for the replication of DNA. S phase or synthesis of DNA: During this phase, the replication of DNA takes place. The centrosome is divide and forms mitotic spindle during the mitosis phase. Mistake in this phase will leads to the loss of DNA mutations or integrity. G2 or second gap: during this phase, the cell mainly replenishes its energy stores as well as synthesizes the proteins which are required for the chromosome manipulation. In this phase error is resolved even in case of unresolved error the cell undergoes division to pass on the error to the daughter cell.

The second stage of a cell cycle is the mitosis or M phase. Chromosomal abnormalities can occur during metaphase of meiosis. It would lead to enuploidy or polyploidy, due to unequal division of chromosomes. Mitotic phase refers to a multiphase process in this the chromosomes are aligned, segregated, and moved into the two new daughter cells which are identical to each other.

Learn more:

Learn more about mitosis   Learn more about the menstrual cycle   Learn more about meiosis

Answer Details:

Grade: High School

Subject: Biology

Chapter: Cell Cycle

Keywords:

Mitosis, meiosis, cell division, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, segregation, chromosome.  

One example is Non-disjunction leading to trisomies and monosomies.

During meiosis I, the homologous chromosomes separate. For each of the 23 pairs, one chromosome migrates in one gamete and its counterpart in the other. But, it can happen that two homologues remain glued to each other and that they migrate together in the same gamete. It can also happen that at meiosis II, both copies of a chromosome migrate together in the same gamete rather than separate.

Whether the division anomaly occurs at meiosis I or II, a gamete containing two chromosomes and one containing none of this chromosome will be obtained. This is called a case of non-disjunction of chromosomes.

Most often, non-disjunction involves the 23rd pair of chromosomes, those determining Տҽ×.

Copying of cellular components and cleaving of cell into two independent cells.
If a cell is not fully-grown or does not have an appropriate cellular environment, it can enter G0 where it can stay for as long as it is necessary.

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