# Give the nuclear symbol. including superscript and subscript. for each of the following.

Give the nuclear symbol, including superscript and subscript, for each of the following.

## General guidance

Concepts and reason
The concepts used to solve this problem are symbols of alpha, beta, and gamma, and properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Initially, find the symbols of the alpha, beta, and gamma particles. Finally, use the properties of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation to find that which contains a negative charge when radiation happens, which radiation is pure energy, and which is most massive.

Fundamentals

Three emissions occurred during the radioactive decay. To identify the particles, they are named as alpha, beta, and gamma. Atomic mass is the weight of the atom. It is represented as . Atomic mass is always present on the superscript of the elements. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is defined as the atomic number of a chemical element. It is represented as. Atomic number is always present on the subscript of the elements. The properties of alpha particles are given below: The nature of alpha rays is that they are positively-charged particles. They are also: highly active, high ionization power, highly massive, stable configuration, and easily deflected by electric and magnetic fields. The properties of beta particles are given below: High energy and fast electrons, beta particles are negatively charged particles, and less massive compared to alpha particle. These particles are deflected to the positive plate due to negative charge. The properties of gamma particles are as follows: Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. It has high energy. Speed of gamma ray is similar to velocity of light. It doesn’t have any charge. Not deflected by electric and magnetic fields.

## Step-by-step

### Step 1 of 6

(1) The symbol for an alpha particle is given below: Here, symbol of the alpha particle is , the atomic mass number is superscript , and atomic number is subscript 4.

Part 1

Thus, the symbol for the alpha particle is .

The alpha particle doesn’t contain electrons and it is composed of 2 neutrons and 2 protons. The particle has a positive charge and it will not have the capacity to penetrate through most substances.

### Step 2 of 6

(2) The symbol for beta particle is given below: Here, symbol of the beta is , the mass number is superscript , and atomic number is subscript .

Part 2

Thus, the symbol for the beta particle is .

The beta particle contains won’t represent a negative number of protons. It is also less-massive than the alpha particle.

### Step 3 of 6

(3) The symbol for gamma particle is as follows: Here, the symbol of the gamma is , the atomic mass number is superscript , and atomic number is subscript .

Part 3

Thus, the symbol for the gamma particle is .

The gamma ray occurs during the emission of alpha and beta decay. It has similar properties to light. The electrons in it will be in the most stable orbitals.

### Step 4 of 6

(4) The alpha radiation contains positive charges. Hence, option alpha is incorrect answer. The gamma radiation doesn’t have a charge. Hence, option gamma is incorrect answer. The beta radiation contains negative charges. Hence, option beta is correct answer.

Part 4

Thus, the particle which contains negative charge when radiation happens is beta.

Beta radiation has greater kinetic energy electrons. The charge in the beta particle leaves its place only when the proton varies to a neutron in the nucleus.

### Step 5 of 6

(5) Alpha and beta particles are discrete subatomic particles. Emission of alpha and beta particles results in the change in atomic numbers. Therefore, options alpha and beta are incorrect. The gamma particles won’t vary the atomic number due to emission. It is the pure energetic form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, option gamma is the correct option.

Part 5

Thus, the particle whose radiation has pure energy is gamma.

Gamma particles are not deflected by less dense matter. Alpha and beta particles are deflected by less dense matter.

### Step 6 of 6

(6) Beta and gamma particles don’t have a stable configuration of particles. Therefore, the options beta and gamma are incorrect.

The alpha particle has two protons and two neutrons. It also has a stable configuration. Therefore, option alpha is correct answer.

Part 6

Thus, the particle which has the most massive particles is alpha.

If the particle doesn’t need loss or gain of electrons, then it is said that it has a stable configuration.

Part 1

Thus, the symbol for the alpha particle is .

Part 2

Thus, the symbol for the beta particle is .

Part 3

Thus, the symbol for the gamma particle is .

Part 4

Thus, the particle which contains negative charge when radiation happens is beta.

Part 5

Thus, the particle whose radiation has pure energy is gamma.

Part 6

Thus, the particle which has the most massive particles is alpha.