How can graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done?
There are several ways to use the graphics or statistics to represent the data. One can misrepresent the data by selecting the small sample size which is favorable for him or her. There would be bias during the selection of random sample for misrepresenting the fact. Also, statistics is used to misrepresent data by using the wrong data collection methods. During the survey the data would be collected in such a way that as researcher wants to prove. The ethics in a statistics are very important for avoiding these types of misrepresentation of data. Sometimes, researchers manipulate and hide the data and they project only what they want to prove. This fact leads to biased conclusions for the statistical analysis.
We see these types of data misrepresentation in several TV ads for the products. For example, company claims that about 80% percent of doctors use the specific brand of toothpaste or more than 60% of ladies use specific beauty product. Actually, these results didn’t calculate by using the entire population and the samples for these studies were collected by wrong and biased methods. Also, the sample size used was very low as compared to entire population.