Classical conditioning in learning is also known as Pavlovian and Respondent Conditioning. It is a learning process that uses the pairing of stimulus such as the conditioned stimulus is paired with unconditioned stimulus.
A learned association between two stimuli is central to classical conditioning.
The term classical conditioning refers to a form of learning in which a biologically potent stimulus is linked with a neutral stimulus, creating a new learned response in an animal or a person. This phenomenon, which has greatly impacted behaviorism, was discovered by Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. That's why it's also known as Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov's experiment included a dog, whose salivation was observed. A dog would receive food and, due to the biological response to food, begin to salivate. Before feeding the dog, Pavlov began introducing a clicking metronome (a neutral stimulus), and after a few repetitions, just the sound of the metronome was enough to cause salivation, which is, in this case, a conditioned response. The metronome became a conditioned stimulus. This shows that the dog learned a new behavior.
a. involves an association between two stimuli.
Classic conditioning is a concept created by Pavlov regarding his experiments with dogs. It is the association of an initially neutral stimulus with a significant stimulus. In this way, when the neutral stimulus is presented, in the absence of the other stimulus, a response similar to the one that would occur if the significant stimulus were presented. This ability to associate stimuli, however different they may be, helps us in a multitude of daily situations.
classical conditioning; operant conditioning
In classical conditioning situations, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. In operant conditioning situations, organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence.
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Classical conditioning involves an association between two stimuli and whereas operant conditioning requires behavior on the part of the learner.
Because of this, classical conditioning can imposed without reward or punishment. When we pair a neutral stimuli with a conditioned stimuli, over the time people will start to give conditioned response for the neutral stimuli.
Operant conditioning on the other hand, require a certain type of reward or punishment that has to be given based on whether the subject is conducting a desired behavior or not.
d. an organism responds to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus.
A stimulus generalization is when an individual responds to a new stimulus the same or similar way that it responded to a stimulus with similar characteristics. Considering this information the correct answer is d.
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operant conditioning; classical conditioning
A learned association between a response and a stimulus is to operant conditioning as a learned association between two stimuli is to classical conditioning(is learning through association whereby a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response )