To avoid confusion from a misplaced modifier, a participial phrase should be placed
at the beginning of the sentence. at the end of the sentence. next to the noun it describes. next to the verb it describes.
The 3rd option
The correct answer is: Next to the noun it describes.
Participial phrases consist of a participle verb ending in "ing" (present), or in "ed" (past), plus other complements, they can be placed at the beginning, in the middle or the end of a sentence, but making sure they are the closest possible to the noun or pronoun they are modifying. The use of commas, when needed, is extremely important to avoid missunderstandings.
The following examples demonstrate that participial phrases (in bold) may take different positions in a sentence:
Children, behaving properly, will get a reward.
Excited about her gift, the lady begun to cry.
John kept staring at the boy, surprised by his blond hair.
In the last example the use of a comma is necessary to point out that the participial phrase is modifying John, and not the boy.
To avoid confusion from a misplaced modifier, a participial phrase should be placed next to the noun it describes.
The participle phrase is a grammatical structure composed of a verb conjugated in participle to which objects and complements are added. It has the function of an adjective with respect to a noun in the main sentence.
The verb can have a conjugation in the past participle, that is, with an ending similar to the past tense in regular verbs (ending in –ed) and with different forms in irregular verbs. The present participle conjugation, ending in –ing, is also used, so it can be confused with verbs conjugated in gerund.
Complements in the participle phrase are all those words that modify and add meaning to the verb. Nouns, adjectives, articles, and adverbs can be used.
When using the present participle, the structure of the participle phrase can be confused with a gerund phrase. Its specific difference is that the participle phrase goes immediately before or immediately after a noun, acting as an adjective, describing, limiting or specifying the noun. For its part, the gerund phrase can be in other parts of the sentence and has the function of a noun, either as a subject or as a direct object.