What Does LLB stand for in a Law Degree?

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    What Does LLB stand for in a Law Degree?

  • What Does Llb Stand For

  • LL.B is a degree of Bachelor of Law, more commonly found in countries other than the United State. In the United States, it is called an Juris Doctor degree or J.D. “LL” is an abbreviation for legum. In Latin, LLB means Legum Baccalaureus. In the U.S., it is sometimes incorrectly reffered to as Bachelor of Legal Letters to account for the double L’s.

  • Simply, Bachelor of Law.

  • Bachelor of Laws

  • In Latin –

    LLB Legum Baccalaureus (Latin: Bachelor of Law)

    In English (regularly used)

    LLB Bachelor of Laws

    In English (In strict use)

    LLB Bachelor of Legislative Law

  • bachelo of licentiate laws ll.b

  • LLB stands for “Lawyers can Lick my Balls”

  • It is abbreviated LL.B. (or LLB): “LL.” is an abbreviation of the genitive plural legum (of lex, law), thus “LL.B.” stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. In the United States it is sometimes erroneously called “Bachelor of Legal Letters” to account for the double “L”.

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    The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree.

    In Canada, Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. The Canadian common law LL.B. is generally a graduate-entry degree, meaning that the majority of those admitted to a Canadian LL.B. program are already holders of one or more degrees.

    Bachelor of Laws is also the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law (both being pluralistic legal systems that are based partly on common law and partly on civil law) awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively.

    The Bachelor of Laws is considered a professional degree as one of the main purposes of the degree is to provide the academic training for those who wish to become lawyers

    Structure of LL.B. programmes

    Historically, law students used to study both civil law and common law. Today, this is much less common. However, a few institutions, such as Cardiff University’s Department of Canon (Ecclesiastical) Law and McGill University’s and the University of Ottawa’s combined programme, continue to offer alternatives to the common law.

    [edit] Common law countries generally

    In most common law countries (with the exception of Canada and the U.S.), the Bachelor of Laws programme is generally entered directly after completion of secondary school, but some universities in Britain and Australia also offer the programme as an accelerated (shorter duration), second-entry programme for the LL.B following completion of a previous undergraduate degree.

    [edit] Canada

    Canada has a dual system of laws. In the province of Quebec, a system of civil law is used. At the federal level, as well as in every province or territory except Quebec, a system of common law is used. Because of this, there are two Canadian law degrees available.

    The programme of study for the common law LL.B is generally a second-entry degree programme. While the degree awarded is at the first-degree level and admission may be granted to applicants with two or three years of undergraduate studies towards a degree, in practice the programme generally requires completion of a previous undergraduate degree before registration in that programme. In fact, almost all admitted law students hold at least a bachelor level degree, and a significant number hold a graduate level degree as well.

    The common law programme is three years in length. At that time, the graduate holds a Bachelor of Laws degree, but cannot practice law yet. In order to practice law, the graduate must then be licensed by the Law Society of the province where he/she wishes to practice law. (See Becoming a Lawyer below.) Those law graduates wishing to become law professors instead of lawyers would have to obtain a more advanced law degree such as the Master of Laws (LL.M) or the Doctor of Laws (LL.D, S.J.D. or D. JUR) at a law school offering programmes leading to such degrees.

    The civil law programme in Canada is three years in length. The programme of study for the first degree in Quebec civil law (called LL.B, B.C.L. or LL.L) is a first-entry degree programme. Like other first-entry university programmes in Quebec it requires a CEGEP diploma for entry.

    Law schools that offer civil law B.C.L. or LL.L degrees include McGill University and the University of Ottawa.

    Because of Canada’s dual system of laws, some law schools offer joint or dual degrees of common law and civil law. McGill University and the University of Ottawa are two law schools which offer such degrees.

    The law degree offered by McGill University is a mandatory joint common law LL.B / Quebec civil law B.C.L. degree. The programme is four years in length. Admission to that programme is a first-entry programme in the case of Quebec students (as the CEGEP diploma is required) while it is a second-entry programme in the case of students from other provinces (since two years of university studies is required – effectively one extra year of studies more than for a CEGEP diploma). The University of Ottawa offers a civil law degree (LL.L) on its own.

    A number of Canadian law schools offer students the opportunity to earn, besides their three-year first degrees in common law, programs in common law for holders of baccalaureate degrees in Quebec civil law enabling those individuals to earn the LL.B in common law in two or three semesters, depending on the offering university’s program. Similarly, University of Ottawa offers, besides its three year LL.L program in Quebec civil law, a one year LL.L program in Quebec civil law for holders of an LL.B or J.D. degree in common law from a Canadian law school.

    Additionally, some Canadian universities with common law law schools have an arrangement with a Canadian university with a Quebec civil law law school enabling students to obtain the home school’s law degree in three years and the exchange school’s law degree in the fourth year.

    [edit] Becoming a lawyer

    See also: Legal education and Legal education in the United Kingdom

    Upon completion of the LL.B degree (or its equivalent), graduates are generally qualified to apply for membership of the bar or law society. The membership eligibility bestowed may be subject to completion of professional exams. A student may have to gain a further qualification at postgraduate level, for example the Legal Practice Course or Bar Vocational Course in England and Wales or the PCLL in Hong Kong.

    In Australia, LL.B graduates are required to undertake a one year articled clerkship or the Legal Practice Course (Commonly Practical Legal Training or PLT) before applying for registration as a solicitor. Membership of the Bar is restricted to Barristers, and is attained through the successful completion of an exam and a nine-month period of tutelage (the reading period) under a senior Barrister.

    In Canada, the lawyer licensing process usually requires the law graduate to 1.) take further classroom law courses, taught by the law society itself, and pass a set of written examinations, commonly referred to as bar exams, related to the taken courses and 2.) complete articled clerkship commonly known as articling. Although the vast majority of law graduates fulfill the articled clerkship requirement by articling (i.e. working and learning) in a law firm, a government’s legal department, a business corporation’s (in house) legal department, a community legal clinic or some other type of non-profit organization involved in legal work, a small minority of law graduates (with exceptional academic records) satisfy the articled clerkship requirement by undergoing what is commonly called clerkship with a specific courthouse and under the supervision of a judge instead of working in a more “lawyer-type environment” under the supervision of a lawyer called a “principal”. In either articling or clerkship, there is the expectation that the law graduate will work in a variety of legal fields and be exposed to the harsh realities of legal practice that are absent from law school’s academic atmosphere.

    In the Province of Ontario, for example, the licensing process for the Law Society of Upper Canada (Ontario’s governing law society) consists of three mandatory components: The Skills and Professional Responsibility Program with assignments and assessments, Licensing Examinations (a Barrister Licensing Examination and a Solicitor Licensing Examination), and a 10-month Articling term.[1]

    At the conclusion of the licensing process, the law graduate is “called to the bar” whereby he/she signs his/her name in the rolls of solicitors and swears lawyer-related oaths in a formal ceremony where he/she must appear in a complete barrister’s gown and bow before judges of the local superior court and benchers of the licensing law society. After the call ceremony, he/she can designate him/herself as a “solicitor and barrister”, and can practice law in the province in which he/she is licensed. In the Province of British Columbia, licensed lawyers are automatically permitted to practice the powers of a Notary Public. In Ontario and other provinces, a licensed lawyer requires further licensing from another authority, such as the provincial attorney general, before he/she can work in a Notary Public capacity.

    Although not required by the licensing process, many 1st and 2nd year law students work in law firms during the summer off-school season to earn extra money and to guarantee themselves an articling position (with the same law firms) upon their graduation from law school, because there is always fierce competition for articling positions, especially for those in large law firms offering attractive remuneration and prestige, and a law graduate cannot become a licensed lawyer in Canada if he/she has not gone through articled clerkship.

    [edit] Alternative titles and formats

    [edit] Juris Doctor (J.D.)

    For main article, see Juris Doctor

    In the United States, the LL.B became the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree, a three year graduate degree generally taken after completion of a four-year undergraduate degree.

    While universities in other common law jurisdictions generally still award the LL.B. degree as the basic professional law degree, some law schools in Canada, Hong Kong, and Australia have changed their LL.B programmes to Juris Doctor programmes.

    [edit] London, Oxford, Cambridge and Nottingham B.A.

    At Oxford, and Cambridge the principal law degree is a B.A., in Jurisprudence and Law respectively; the B.C.L. and LL.B (recently renamed LL.M) are postgraduate degrees. The University of London[2] was the first English University to offer the LL.B. in the common law. As the first University to be established by an Act of Parliament in 1836, it became the first University in England not only to break the religious test requirements of Oxford and Cambridge, but the first to establish a distance learning programme (1858), the first to admit women, and the first to establish the study of International Relations. In terms of Law (LL.B.), the [University’s External Programme][3] has been awarding the LL.B. since 1958. The University of London offers the LL.B., the LL.M. and the M.Phil/Ph.d through Birkbeck, The London School of Economics, University College, Queen Mary College, School of Oriental and African Studies, Kings College, and both the LL.B. and the LL.M through the University’s External Programme. The University of London consistently makes the top three places on the Times of London Good University Guide. Nottingham also offers a B.A. in Law, which is an alternative to their LLB, allowing the student to study modules from other subjects as well as Law.

    [edit] Irish B.C.L.

    Three of the four universities under the National University of Ireland (NUI) umbrella, award the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.). These are UCC, UCD and NUIG. Five (three in the republic) Irish universities (Trinity College Dublin; NUIG; The Queen’s University of Belfast; the University of Limerick, and the University of Ulster), one English university (Nottingham Trent University) and one Welsh university (University of Wales) award the LL.B in Ireland as a basic professional degree in law (the latter two are run via local private colleges). NUIG therefore, awards both. It should be noted, though, that Ireland is a common law jurisdiction (in fact there are two common law jurisdictions on the island) and the expression “civil law” is used to differentiate common law from ecclesiastical law in the republic. In the past NUI B.C.L. graduates who went to work in Britain sometimes didn’t disabuse people of the casual notion that it was a post-graduate degree, similar to the more famous Oxford B.C.L.

    [edit] Zimbabwe B.L. and LL.B

    At the University of Zimbabwe, the first degree in common law is the Bachelor of Law (B.L.) which is equivalent to the LL.B in other common law jurisdictions. It is followed by a one year programme at the university (analogous to post-LL.B vocational programmes in other common law jurisdictions) at the end of which a second degree, the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B), is awarded. [4]

    [edit] The Sydney LLB

    The Sydney Law School offers a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree through two programs. The first, Combined Law,[5] is available to secondary school leavers, and candidates must choose to study law alongside another degree from the following list: Arts, Commerce, Economics, Economic & Social Sciences, Engineering, International Studies and Science. All combinations are five years except Engineering/Law which is six. During their first three years of study, the undergraduate students complete their non-law degree together with the first year of a normal three-year graduate law degree. Then, two more years are spent as a graduate completing the LLB itself. The other program is Graduate Law,[6] available to tertiary graduates with at least a completed bachelors degree. This program entails three years of full-time study. The advantage of Combined Law over Graduate Law is one year less of university study. The Sydney LLB enables graduates to practise in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Many graduates go on to successfully practise in the United Kingdom and Canada, owing to their background in Common Law . Graduates can also practise in Civil Law countries provided they meet any additional criteria required by the particular jurisdiction.

    [edit] The LLB in Pakistan

    In Pakistan, a person going for a LLB degree should have a bachelor’s degree. Most law students choose to obtain a two year bachelor degree before enrolling for a LLB degree in a law college. The LLB itself is a three year programme.In Punjab, a five year joint BA/LLB degree is being offered by law colleges.

    After obtaining a LLB degree, a person wishing to practise has to intimate the concerned Bar Council that he is undergoing a six month training period under the supervision of a High Court lawyer with ten year standing. After he completes the pupillage, he will be asked to take a written test and undergo a viva-voce exam.

    [edit] Variations on the LL.B

    Some universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand offer variations of this degree, such as the LL.B (Europe), which generally take four years to complete and include a wider range of topics as well as some degree of specialisation.

    Various universities in the United Kingdom and Australia will allow a degree that combines study with a non-law discipline. For example, some universities in the United Kingdom offer a combined study of law and history leading to a B.A. degree that is accepted by the law society and Inns of Court as equivalent to an LL.B

    The University of London External Programme in Laws (LL.B.) has been awarding its law degree via distance learning since 1858. The LL.B. awarded by the University of London External Programme is of the same standard and quality irrespective of the mode or manner of learning.

    [edit] Eligibility to Practise Law in the U.S. with Foreign Credentials

    Foreign law graduates seeking admission to the bar in the United States may find their LL.B law degree fulfils core admission requirements and allows them to take the bar exam. For example, New York permits holders of University of Oxford and Cambridge University B.A. in Laws and University of London LL.B (excluding degrees earned through the External Programme) to take the bar, and both New York and Massachusetts permit Canadian LL.B holders to take the bar. (The University of Toronto J.D. is a renamed LL.B and treated no differently by American states.) The procedures vary between states and interested applicants should seek specific advice.

    [edit] Situation within the European Union

    European Union law permits European Union citizens with LL.B degrees from Ireland or the UK, who practise law in one of these countries for three or more years, to practise also in every other member state. The actual procedure to receive the respective national licence is regulated by the member state and therefore differs from country to country, but every EU member has to apply the relevant EU Directives to its own national law.

    Recently many universities in Germany have introduced LL.B degrees as part of the Bologna process.The LL.B is a three or four year basic law degree.Some students pursue the LL.M after pursuing the LL.B. The LL.B in Germany covers all classes which are also required for the First State Exam.A credit point system is used for the LL.B degree. In order to obtain the LL.B students have to pass more exams and thus collect more points than needed for the First State Exam. By obtaining the LL.B, a student is automatically qualified to sit for the First State Exam. It is expected that the First State Exam will be completely replaced by the LL.B by 2010. The LL.B is a cornerstone to the future of law practice in Germany.

    In Malta, the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree, offered by the University of Malta, is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions.

    [edit] Alternatives to a law degree

    There are also conversion courses available for non-law graduates, available as an alternative to the full-length LL.B. degree course. One such example of a conversion course in England and Wales is the GDL (Graduate Diploma in Law), which takes one year to complete. The Scottish alternative to this is the accelerated LL.B, where graduates from another discipline can complete the LL.B in two years.

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