What is the difference between extraction and washing

Can you help with question #2?
2. Briefly explain or describe the following: (a) What is the difference between extraction and washing? (b How would you determine which layer is the aqueous layer after you add NaHCOs solution to the ether solution of your compounds? (c Why is the NaoH extract heated before acidification? (d two visible evidences of reaction will you see when you acidify the NaHCO, extract with HCI (e) In which layer would p-toluic acid be more soluble if p-toluic acid were added to a two-layer mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and water? (f How would the results differ if you added sodium p-toluate instead of p-toluic acid to the two- layer mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and water?

Answer

a) Extraction is the process of selectively removing a compound of interest from a mixture using a solvent. For an extraction to be successful the compound must be more soluble in the solvent than in the mixture. Additionally, the solvent and mixture must be immiscible (not soluble in one another).

Making tea is a good example of extraction. Water is placed in contact with tea bags and the “tea” is extracted from the tea leaves into the water. This works because the “tea” is soluble in water but the leaves are not. Washing is the process of selectively removing unwanted compounds from a mixture using a solvent. For a washing to be successful the unwanted materials must be more soluble in the solvent than in the mixture. Additionally, the solvent and mixture must be immiscible. Immiscible solvents are not soluble in each other and form two layers when mixed.

The washing of clothes is a good example. Dirty clothes are placed in water. The dirt, the unwanted material, is removed leaving the clothes, what we are interest in, behind. This works because the dirt is soluble in the water and clothes are not. b)The NaHCO3 solution is an aqueous solution (water is the solvent). Water is more dense than ether and sinks to the bottom, while the ether sits on top. Most organic solvents will be less dense than water, unless you’re working with halogenated solvents like methylene chloride, chloroform, or carbon tetrachloride. c) To remove any remaining traces of another existing compound that might inhibit the crystallization of the phenol. Acidification is the process of being converted into an acid of or becoming acid. The process by which water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, and other natural features become affected by excess acid can also be described as acidification. d) In the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid, one result of the reaction will be carbon dioxide bubbling out of solution. Also sodium chloride can be viewed falling in the solution. e) Well, well, that depends on the pH of the water layer. If the water layer is basic or rather just not acidic, it will be in the water layer. If the water layer is acidic, pH 4 or less, it will be in the ether layer.
On the question of upper and lower, ether has a density of less than one so it will be the upper layer.

f) I think this might be the answer. “That depends on the pH of the water layer. If the water layer is basic or rather just not acidic, it will be in the water layer. If the water layer is acidic, pH 4 or less, it will be in the ether layer.On the question of upper and lower, either has a density of less than one so it will be the upper layer.”

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