B, C, E.
Unsaturated fats are more likely than saturated fats to be liquid at room temperature. (because saturated fats are solid at room temperature and unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature).
Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) are composed of fatty acid residues and glycerol. (because by the reaction between glycerol and 3 long chain fatty acid triglycerides formation occurs and form 3 ester linkages).
Fats that contain more unsaturated fatty acid residues than saturated fatty acid residues are more likely to be liquid at room temperature. (because saturated fats are solid at room temperature and unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature).
The best answers to the question: Which of the statements are true? Would be the following:
1. Fats that contain more saturated fatty acid residues than unsaturated fatty acid residues are more likely to be solid at room temperature.
3. Unsaturated fats are more likely than saturated fats to be liquid at room temperature.
5. Triacylglycerols (tryglicerides) are composed of fatty acid residues and glycerol.
The options chosen from the five options are all characteristics of triglycerides. These molecules, which are pretty complex, have all of the options above except for 2 and 4 because these molecules, especially unsaturated fats do not have a high melting point, that is why they remain liquid at room temperature. So that option is wrong. Also, although tryglicerides do have carboxyl groups, chemically speaking they are better categorized as esters.
Fats or lipid can be defined as high energy containing organic macro-molecules. The basic molecule which makes up fat or lipid is Triacylglycerol.A Triacylglcerol molecule is made up of one molecule of glycerol attached to three fatty acids molecules.Here, the carboxylic acid groups of three fatty acid molecules are attached with the help of ester bonds to the three hydroxyl groups of one glycerol molecule.Fatty acids are of two types, Saturated and Unsaturated.Saturated fatty acid molecules can be defined as those in which the carbon atoms forming the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid molecule are linked to each other by single covalent bonds. The structure of saturated fatty acid molecule is linear or straight.Unsaturated fatty acid molecules can be defined as those in which there are presence of one or multiple double covalent bonds in between the carbon atoms forming the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid molecule.These double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid molecules form kinks or bend in the structure of the fatty acid .In lipid or fat, the fatty acid molecules associate with each other by hydrophobic or Van der Waals forces of interactions.In saturated fat, due to the linear structure of the fatty acids, the fatty acid molecules associate close to each other thereby forming a compact fat molecule with high melting point. This causes them become solidified at room temperature.In unsaturated fat, the presence of kinks or bends in the fatty acid molecules results in the generation of fat molecules whose structure is not compact due to the presence of spaces in between the fatty acid molecules. These fats have a lower melting point which causes them to be liquid at room temperature.The first statement is FALSE as triacylglycerols are formed by the esterification of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of glycerol.The second statement is TRUE as unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting point than saturated fatty acids.The third statement is FALSE as saturated fats have higher melting point than unsaturated fats.The fourth statement is TRUE as triacylglycerols are formed by the esterification of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of glycerol.The fifth statement is TRUE as unsaturated fats have lower melting point and so they are liquid at room temperature.