Which of the following statements best describes the behavior of DNA during electrophoresis?

Which of the following statements best describes the behavior of DNA during electrophoresis?

Longer DNA fragments migrate farther than shorter fragments Migration distance is inversely proportional to the fragment size, ОО Uncut DNA migrates farther than DNA cut with restriction enzymes O Positively charged DNA migrates more rapidly than negatively charged DNA.


Migration distance is inversely proportional to the fragment size,


Gel electrophoresis is a technique used in molecular biology that uses electricity to separate biological molecules based on size (DNA) or charge (proteins). For the DNA molecule, different sizes are separated from one another based on how fast they can migrate through the gel matrix.

In this technique, small fragments or sizes of DNA migrates farther than long sizes of DNA due to low friction in the matrix. In other words, the smaller the size of the DNA fragment, the farther the migration distance and vice versa. This shows that an INVERSE RELATIONSHIP exists between the migration distance and the fragment size in the electrophoresis procedure.

at the beginning of the run, DNA of all lengths are relatively close together. as time goes on the difference in the rate of migration of fragments of different length causes them to separate.

B) All DNA molecules will migrate up the gel toward the positive electrode.


Because the DNA has a negative charge - regardless the size-, all DNA molecules will migrate towards the positive electrode, at the top of the gel. This is due to the Coulomb's physic law  "force of the interaction between the charges is attractive if the charges have opposite signs".

Instead of migrate down the gel , the DNA will do migrate up the gel (opposite direction).

C. The DNA fragments travel at different speeds through the gel.



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Migration distance is inversely proportional to the fragment size.


The gel electrophoresis is the process of separation of the DNA fragments after the action of restriction endonuclease action on enzyme. The gel electrophoresis is carried out after coating the DNA fragments with suitable salts and placing them on the side of the electrophoresis table.

The electrophoresis is carried through agar agar gel which has a network inside it.  The smaller DNA fragments will pass more through the gel whereas the larger fragments will be left behind.

c. Migration distance on a gel is inversely proportional to DNA fragment size


Deoxyribonucleic acid is a genetic material that is a type of macromolecule. It is made up of a monomer that ais called a nucleotide. Each nucleotide is made up of a deoxyribose sugar, a base, and a phosphate group. Due to the presence of phosphate group DNA has negative property. When the DNA is separated by the gel electrophoresis method the size of the fragment of the DNA plays an important role. Those DNA fragments that are small in size migrate faster than those DNA fragments that are larger in size. So the migration distance is inversely proportional to the DNA fragment size.

Gel Electrophoresis is a way to sort and measure the DNA strands. Scientists use the technique whenever they need to sort DNA strands according to lengths, this is because it helps them determine patterns, banding patterns create unique fingerprint for a certain individual. During the process the shorter strands move faster because they have less mass compared to the longer strand. Therefore, the short strands end up farther away from the starting point than the longer strands, which is how the different in lengths sort themselves out. 

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