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Major parts of the animal cell:
Nucleus- controls the cell's activities and contains all the genetic material
Nucleolus- is involved in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA. It is a dark body inside the nucleus
Nuclear membrane- keeps DNA inside the nucleus but allows mRNA and proteins through. It is a double membrane with large pores
Golgi Complex- store and package cellular secretions for export out of the cell (usually through the use of vacuoles). Salivary, oil, and digestive glands have very active golgi bodies.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum-is a series of long canals running throughout the cell with ribosomes attached. It transports proteins to the golgi bodies for packaging.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- is a series of long canals running throughout the cell. It detoxifies the cell and converts foodstuffs.
Centrioles- anchor spindle fibers during cell division. They are composed of microtubules and are only found in animal cells.
Mitochondria- produce most of the cell's energy. They are composed of two membranes (an outer and a folded inner membrane) and are common in muscle cells
Ribosomes and Free Ribosomes- assemble proteins from RNA codes. They are found free-floating in the cytoplasm throughout the cell or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosomes-digest and remove worn out cell organelles. In essence, they are vacuoles filled with digestive enzymes.
the answer is d
Explanation: because glycogen it’s stored in liver and muscle cells
The major carbohydrates found in cell walls are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. The cellulose microfibrils are bonded through hemicellulosic tethers to give the cellulose-hemicellulose network, that is found in the pectin matrix.
Cell membrane are majorly made up of phospholipids, glycolipids, proteins, and cholesterol. The lipid found mostly though our the membrane are the phospholipids.
Enzymes are biological molecules that are protein in nature and accelerate the rate of the chemical reactions that occurs within cells.
4. Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids aid major activities in the cell by serving as the repository of the genetic materials needed for the transfer of inherited characteristics from parents to offspring and from an individual cell to another cell
Anabolic processes are endothermic - where does the energy and raw materials come from to synthesize the major constituents of a cell? Pick a specific anabolic pathway, carry out some background research and describe the necessary inputs, the major reaction steps and the resulting cellular products. How ubiquitous is this pathway? Are the intermediates used in any other processes?
Where does the energy and raw materials come from to synthesize the major constituent of a cell?
Energy comes from the oxidation of glucose to produce acetyl co enzyme A and further oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the citric acid cycle which generate NADH and FADH2 which can inturn be used by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway to generate ATP.
ATP- is a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells
Gluconeogenesis; Is the metabolic pathway that result in the generation of glucose from certain non carbohydrate carbon substrate. this substrate include glucogenic amino acids, they include glycerol, they also include pyruvate and lactate
Reaction steps; for reaction steps check the attached gluconeogenesis pathway below.
The resulting cellular product is glucose
How Ubiquitous is the pathway? Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and other micro organisms. and this tend to be a continuous process
Are the Intermediates used in any other processes? yes they are e.g glycerol is used in fatty acid synthesis and it is also a precursor for gluconeogenesis
In humans the main gluconeogenic precursors are lactate, glycerol, alanine and gluthamine. altogether they account for over 90% of the overall gluconeogenesis. other glucogenic amino acids as well as citric acid cycle intermediates, the latter through conversion to oxaloacetate can also function as substrate for gluconeogenesis. in ruminants propionate is the principal gluconeogenic substrate. generally consumption of gluconeogenic substrate in food does not result in increased gluconeogenesis.
D) Cells come from free cell formation similar to spontaneous generation.
Cells come from free cells