i need the answer it is for Nova Net
All Indian students of Indian History can give a list of explanations for the success of the Mughal (Mogul, Mogol) empire and each a list of books in support; studying which many of them passed tough examinations like the selection for ‘Indian Administrative Service’, ‘Indian Police Service’ or ‘Indian Foreign Service’.
Accuracy in History is debatable and all ideologies have free play, as it is a matter of interpretation (the older the history more it is). There are two views concurrent In India – the so-called Marxian (Historian ‘Irfan Habib’ comes to mind) or Leftist view of History. The other is ‘Nationalist'(read Hindu) view which seeks to built a structure on stilts called ‘hearsay’. Pakistani history (they share history with India) books glorify all rulers of Muslim period; more so on their destructive acts on the religion as ordained in their faith (destruction of idols for example).
Recently, Popular Prakashan (People’s book house, Connaught Place, New Delhi) is bringing out a series of volumes covering Indian History traditionally partitioned 3 way – Ancient/Hindu period, Medieval/Muslim period & Modern/European period; leaving two slivers of pre-history and post-independence period. The series is not complete yet (even in Mughal period). I recommend the series.
Almost all Delhi Sultanates were successful in both sub periods. History of Delhi Sultanates is not the same as ‘Indian History’ just as Roman History is not History of Italy. The first sub-period, earlier sultanates – Balbans, Slave kings, Sayyads, Khiljis, Tughlaks and Lodhis dynasties – were successful. The last, Ibrahim Lodhi’s Punjab governor was “cheesed off” with his ‘king’ and inviting Babur, the then king in Kabul (Afghanistan) to invade India. Babur did that to install ‘Mughal’ dynasty on Delhi throne. Babur was a native of fertile ‘Ferghana’ valley now partitioned amongst Uzbekistan, Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan (who built Taj Mahal) & Aurangzeb were all successful but have to work hard to be on throne. Only Humayun was driven out by the usurper Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan who too was a very good ruler. After he regained throne Humayun had no further problem. The later Mughals were insignificant and none remembers their names even except ‘Bahadar Shah Zafar’. He was an Emperor with no more than Delhi city as his nominal kingdom under the gaze of the ruling English. But became famous as he was installed as Emperor by mutineers (against the English Company) in 1857. When the mutiny was suppressed, he was banished and as punishment deported to Rangoon in Burma to die there, bringing the dynasty to end. Interestingly the English deposed the last Burmese king and packed him off to India to die. It seems to be the English policy with the native kings.
While Mughal Empire was in full flow in North, in the south there were two big kingdoms. One is the ‘Bahmani’ kingdom in North Deccan (Deccan is the triangular Indian peninsula). It split up into five kingdoms – Bijapur, Golconda and the lesser Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Berar. It was opposed by the ‘Vijayanagara’ Empire encompassing the rest of Deccan till the land’s end (Cape Comorin or ‘Kanniya kumari’). A week ago, recently the 500th enthronement of Sri Krishnadeva Raya, the greatest of Vijayanagara Emperors who combined four cultural regions (Kannada, Telugu, Tamil & Malayalam) and was himself the author of an epic poem in Telugu – was celebrated in Hyderabad. This empire was completely destroyed by the combined might of five Bahmani kings. They were under constant fear of larger (Mughal) empire to the North and finally succumbed, but with the Golconda kingdom resurrected later by a Mughal general that survived the British as ‘Vassal’. Then Portuguese were ruling the waves in Arabian Sea one of the pirate ships prevented the Great Mughal Akbar’s paternal aunt from going on ‘pilgrimage to Mecca’ and looted the ship.
With the above as frame work you need to go into specific details by asking pointed questions.
The mughal empire was founded by the timurid prince babur in 1504 when he took over certain area of khorasan and kabul. In 1526 at the first battle of panipat he defeated the last of the delhi sultans. The empire expanded and enjoyed consolidation till 1707 and survived till 1857. The word mughal comes from the persian language we would best no this group of people as mongols. The mongols where generally central asian nomads who say they decended from warriors of Genghis Khan.